ACT is Now Accepting Offshore Applicants

Migration to Australia, Scenery

In 12th January 2022, Australian Capital Territory (ACT) has released its Critical Skills List to address the shortage in the entire territory. In line with that, ACT is now accepting offshore applications.

There are criteria set for both Subclass 190 and Subclass 491, and a specific set of documents for overseas applicants. Should you find your nominated Occupation below, consult with us to know how you can take advantage of this opportunity.

ACT Critical Skills List:


Nominated Occupation




Accountant (General)


Advertising Manager


Advertising Specialist 


Aeronautical Engineer


Agricultural Engineer


Airconditioning and Refrigeration Mechanics


Analyst Programmer


Arts Administrator or Manager








Biomedical Engineer


Cafe and Restaurant Managers


Call or Contact Centre Manager (491 only)


Careers Counsellor


Carpenter and Joiner






Child Care Centre Managers


Civil Engineer


Clinical Psychologist


Community Arts Worker (491 only)


Community Worker


Computer Network & Systems Engineer


Conference and Event Organisers


Construction Project Manager


Contract Administrator






Corporate Services Manager


Counsellors nec


Customer Service Manager


Database Administrator


Dental Specialist


Dentist (491 only)


Developer Programmer


Diesel motor mechanic


Disabilities Services Officer


Drug and Alcohol Counsello


Early Childhood (Pre-Primary School) Teacher


Educational Psychologist


Electrical Engineers


Electronics Engineers


Enrolled Nurse


Environmental Engineer


Environmental Health Officer (491 only)


Environmental Manager


External Auditor


Facilities manager


Family and Marriage Counsellor


Family Support Worker


Finance Manager


Gardener (General


General Practitioner


Geotechnical Engineer


Graphic Designer


Hardware Technician


Human Resource manager


Human Resource Professionals


ICT Business Analyst 


ICT Customer Support Officer


ICT Managers (nec)


ICT Project Manager


ICT Quality Assurance Engineer


ICT Security Specialist


ICT Support and Test Engineers (nec)


ICT Support Engineer


ICT Support Technicians


ICT Systems Test Engineer




Information and Org. Prof. nec (491 only)


Insurance Loss Adjuster


Internal Auditor




Journalist & other writers (nec)


Landscape Gardener


Liaison Officer (491 only)


Management Accountant


Management Consultant 


Marketing Research Analyst (491 only)


Marketing Specilaist


Motor Mechanics


Motorcycle mechanic


Multimedia Specialists


Network Administrator


Network Analyst


Newspaper or Periodical Editor


Nurse Practitioner


Occupational Health and Safety Adviser


Occupational Therapist


Organisation and Methods  Analysts


Organisational Psychologist


Pastry Chef


Patents Examiner (491 only)






Policy Analyst (491 only)


Policy and Planning Manager (491 only)


Primary School Teacher


Print Journalist


Procurement manager (491 only)


Production Manager (Manufacturing)


Program or Project Administrator


Psychologist (nec)




Public Relations Manager (491 only)


Public Relations Professionals


Quantity Surveyor


Recreation Officer


Registered Nurse (Aged Care)


Registered Nurse (Child & Family Health)


Registered Nurse (Community Health)


Registered Nurse (Critical Care & Emergency)


Registered Nurse (Developmental Disability)


Registered Nurse (Disability & Rehabilitation)


Registered Nurse (Medical Practice)


Registered Nurse (Medical)


Registered Nurse (Mental Health)


Registered Nurse (Paediatrics)


Registered Nurse (Perioperative)


Registered Nurse (Surgical)


Registered Nurses (nec)


Rehabilitation Counsellor


Resident Medical Officer


Residential Care Officer


Retail Pharmacists


Sales & Marketing Manager


Secondary School Teacher


Small engine mechanic


Social Worker


Software and Applications Programmers nec


Software Engineer


Software Tester




Special Education Teachers nec


Speech Pathologist


Sports Administrator (491 only)


Structural Engineer


Student Counsellor


Supply, Distribution Manager


Systems Administrator


Systems Analyst


Taxation Accountant


Technical Writer


Television Journalist


Transport Engineer


University Lecturers and Tutors


Web Administrator


Web Designer


Web developer


Welfare Worker


Youth Worker


Can I Still Enter Australia During Covid-19 Times?

woman entering Australia

Ever since the breakout of the pandemic back in March 2020, Australia has closed off its borders as their way of taking quick investigating action against the threat of COVID-19. This decision largely paid off, with the country now having the pandemic well under control compared to others, with new cases now averaging about 1,776 per day.

Due to these restrictions, migration today has become difficult for many people, with the situation believed to remain the same for the rest of 2021. However, various Australian states are now permitting interstate travel with certain requirements as well as exceptions for other, outside individuals looking to gain entry.

Understand what it takes to be able to enter Australia borders, or even successfully migrate to Australia from Singapore.

Who can enter Australia at present?

As stated above, the Australian government has placed a few exceptions for certain individuals to enter the country, such as:

  • Permanent residents and Australian citizens
  • Immediate family of permanent residents or Australian citizens
  • Individuals who have been in Australia or New Zealand for 14 days or more immediately before arrival by air in Australia
  • Individuals transiting Australia for 72 hours or less
  • Individuals recruited under the government-approved Seasonal Worker Program or Pacific Labour Scheme
  • Individuals who possess a Business Innovation and Investment visa
  • Individuals who possess a Temporary Activity (subclass 408) visa under the ‘Post COVID-19 Economic Recovery Event’ stream and are supported by the Global Business and Talent Attraction Taskforce.

Lastly, temporary visas such as working holiday, visitor, and prospective marriage are typically unable to enter Australia for now. To see the full list of exemptions, requirements, and updates, visit the Department of Home Affairs website here.

When should you apply for your Australian visa?

Although the country’s borders remain closed today and are expected to remain as such for the time being, there are no interruptions to the processing of Australian visas. Thus, it is possible to apply even amidst the COVID-19 restrictions imposed within the country today.

Entry pilot testing will soon be initiated for student visa holders, and prospective easing of restrictions to temporary visa holders are in place. Both measures may be initiated as soon as Australia reaches its 80% vaccination rate, and may start to consider easing restrictions gradually.

Skilled, working holiday, parent, and partner visas have a 1 year’s entry date. This means applicants have 12 months from the date of their visa grant before they must enter Australia. Moreover, skilled visas may take up to 6-8 months of preparation and processing before they can be ready for lodgement, so it is worthwhile to allow themselves plenty of time.

What does the future of Australia Migration hold?

It is a well-known fact that Australia has long relied on talents from overseas to bolster and sustain its economy by filling its skill shortages and contributing to the country’s tax system. Even though there has been a sharp downturn in migration due to the recent pandemic, the situation is expected to return to its previous state once the country’s borders reopen in the near future.

Australia is constantly on the lookout for highly skilled individuals to assist in the country’s economic post-pandemic recovery, so now is a good time to start inquiring about visas and possible job opportunities and get one’s application processed early.


Due to the recent uptick of new COVID cases in Australia, it is unlikely the country will open its borders anytime soon. This is also reinforced with a statement from the Australian government stating that they might not lift the travel ban until 2022 at the earliest.

Nonetheless, the country will need to source skilled workers that can aid in the recovery of the country’s economy, so those wishing to migrate to Australia from Singapore should stay alert regarding updates and potential developments and submit their applications as early as now.


Skilled Migration Program: Update For Offshore Applicants

Offshore Applicants Skilled Migration

If you’re a skilled worker who’s planning to expand your career options abroad, then Australia’s skilled migration program might interest you a lot. Australia is home to many job opportunities for skilled individuals around the world, including nurses, accountants, engineers, architectures, IT professionals, and more.

With its highly developed economy, Australia is indeed one of the most attractive countries to work in. Fortunately, Australia has become increasingly open for skilled individuals or families who are planning to migrate permanently in the country and fill its skill shortages.

In fact, you’ll be able to learn more about Australia’s skilled migration program and the recent updates it has for offshore applicants as you continue reading on.

What is the skilled migration program?

The skilled migration program in Australia consists of migration schemes or initiatives that are specifically designed to attract skilled migrants who are willing to contribute to the Australian economy and fill the positions in which no Australian workers are available. Especially with the COVID-19 situation currently, there are many more jobs for skilled migrants in Australia.

These skilled migrants are considered to have very high participation rates in the country’s workforce, thereby helping to boost its economic growth and increase its job opportunities.

The skilled migration program also plays a crucial role in regional development by sourcing skills and labour that are not available locally. It also encourages investment and promotes local spending in regional areas. Overall, the main objective of Australia’s skilled migration program is to amplify the country’s economy and workforce.

Update of the skilled migration program for offshore applicants

Because the COVID-19 pandemic has brought several impacts on Australia’s economy, the Australian government has come up with a number of labour solutions to help manage its coronavirus recovery response. Many of these solutions have something to do with the country’s skilled migration program for offshore applicants.

From September 28, 2021, Australia has already opened an additional 70 occupations to skilled migration applicants who are residing offshore. Some of these occupations include the following: (Note: This does not apply to the entire nation, likewise, every state. Check the specific nomination requirements or with an experienced consultant to verify your eligibility.)

  • Sales and Marketing Manager
  • Public Relations Manager
  • Human Resource Manager
  • Policy and Planning Manager
  • Research and Development Manager
  • Customer Service Manager
  • Management Consultant
  • Organisation and Methods Analyst
  • Liaison Officer
  • Advertising Specialist
  • Marketing Specialist
  • Public Relations Professional
  • Technical Sales Representatives
  • Crop Farmers
  • Mixed Livestock Farmer
  • Poultry Farmer
  • Livestock Farmers
  • Construction Project Manager
  • Project Builder
  • Child Care Centre Manager
  • Environmental Manager
  • Laboratory Manager
  • Quality Assurance Manager
  • Statistician
  • Surveyor
  • Agricultural Scientist
  • Food Technologist
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Research Scientist
  • Geologist
  • Biochemist
  • Botanist
  • Marine Biologist
  • Veterinarian
  • Metallurgist
  • Meteorologist

Each of the occupations found in Australia’s Skilled Occupation List has certain requirements that need to be satisfied by the applicants. However, generally, the minimum requirements for state nomination in these occupations are at least 8 years of work experience in the same job or something closely related to it and proficiency in English.

What does state nomination mean?

State nomination is basically the process that allow state governments to nominate highly skilled candidates to migrate and meet Australia’s skills needs. If you’re a skilled migrant, state nomination is a helpful scheme that can assist you in qualifying for a skilled migration visa. It provides you with additional points for your application.

The general state nomination requirements for offshore applicants of Australia’s skilled migration program include:

  • Submission of a Registration of Interest (ROI) Application
  • Under 45 years of age at the time of the nomination
  • A valid and positive General Skilled Migration (GSM) skills assessment issued by an authorised skill assessment institution
  • Adequate years of work experience in the occupation or related field, which is generally at least 8 years
  • A proficient plus English level
  • The occupation applied for must be in Australia’s Skilled Occupation List
  • Possession of the minimum point requirement that each occupation requires

However, it is important to note that even if you’ve already lodged an ROI and meet the minimum requirements, there’s still no guarantee that you’ll receive an invitation to apply for state nomination since the process is usually competitive.

Still, it’s worth the effort and can help boost the chances of getting a spot in Australia.


Australia is undoubtedly a place for those who wish to boost their career and improve their financial capabilities. With many career opportunities and helpful migration programs in place in the country, working in Australia is a totally achievable dream for numerous skilled workers.

If you’re a skilled individual who’s planning to migrate to Australia from Singapore, you should consider reaching out to us at +65 6299 0245 as we can help you smoothen the process of your application for an Australian visa. Our reliable consultants will discuss with you your eligibility criteria and help you meet all the requirements that you need.


3 Different Visa Pathways For Migration To Australia

holiday to Australia

Australia is a country that has long depended on talents from outside its borders to boost its workforce and bolster its economy to what it is now today. But with the advent of the pandemic last year and their swift response of establishing self-isolation measures, such influx of skilled immigrants consequently dropped sharply.

However, in preparation for its eventual reopening, it continued to accept visa applications from those interested in working or living in the country permanently.

If you are one of such people and are keen on migrating to Australia from Singapore, here are three of the different visa pathways that you can apply for today to make it happen.

Family-stream permanent residence visas

The main prerequisite of this visa stream is that the applicant must have a direct relationship with an Australian citizen, permanent resident of Australia, or ENZ (Eligible New Zealand) citizen. The following visas will solely focus on migration pathways that do not require sponsorships from an established familial relationship (i.e. parents) with any of the above personnel.

  • Partner Visas

Partners of Australian citizens, permanent residents of Australia, and ENZ citizens can apply for a partner visa and immigrate into the country so long as they fall under one of the partner classifications observed by the Australian immigration law:

  1. Fiancé(e)s
    2.Married partners
    3. De facto partners, which includes same-sex marriages

Applicants must first hold the Temporary Partner visa (Subclass 820) prior to progressing to the Permanent Partner visa (Subclass 801). To apply, applicants must first prepare their prerequisite documents found on the Subclass 820/801 Document Checklist and lodge their application either online, via post, or in person and pay the corresponding fee.

The Department of Home Affairs will then process the request and, once approved, applicants can then proceed to live and work in Australia.

  • Prospective Marriage Partner Visa

Applicants engaged to Australian citizens, permanent residents of Australia, and ENZ citizens can be sponsored by their partner living in Australia with a Prospective Marriage Visa (Subclass 130). Upon entry into the country, applicants who hold this visa must complete their marriage within nine months.

It is important to note that this visa classifies as a nonimmigrant, temporary visa and holders do not immediately receive permanent Australian resident status. To become a permanent resident, they must first marry their Australian citizen, permanent resident, or ENZ citizen partner and then apply for the Partner Visa above.

Work-stream permanent residence visas

Individuals who possess the skills or talent that the Australian government is looking for can apply for permanent visas to live and work within the country. These visas include:

  • Skilled Independent Work Visa (Subclass 189)

Foreign-nationals who hold occupations listed on Australia’s Skilled Occupations List are eligible to apply for this visa that lets them work and live in the country as a permanent resident. Applicants interested in this visa must first complete the following steps:

Step 1: Verify if their profession can fill a role in the occupations list

Step 2: Qualify for the required eligibility requirements

These requirements include being:

  • Under 50 years of age
  • Basic English communication skills
  • Passing health requirements
  • Passing character requirements
  • No outstanding debts to the Australian government
  • Willing to sign the Australian Values Statement

Step 3: Complete a Skills Assessment

Completion of the Skills Assessment and a passing score is necessary to progress in the application.

Step 4: Submit an Expression of Interest (EOI) via SkillSelect

The SkillSelect program will ask applicants a series of questions regarding their skills, background, and relevant work history. The submitted EOI will become available for viewing by Australian authorities and employers looking to hire people they need.

After obtaining a nomination or sponsor and the applicant’s EOI meets the visa requirements, they will be invited to apply for the Subclass 189 visa.

Step 5: Await an employer sponsor or government nomination

The Subclass 189 visa requires applicants to be sponsored by employers or nominated by state or territory governments within Australia.

If there no employers are looking to sponsor an applicant, the latter party may be able to find one themselves via the SkillSelect program – a system that matches them to potential employers looking for their specific skill set.

Step 6: Have the sponsor complete the paperwork

After accepting an invitation, applicants must let their sponsor nominate them for their visa.

Step 7: Apply for the Skilled Independent Work Visa and await the decision

Once applicants secure an employer and a nomination, they can then proceed to apply for the visa online via the DHA. Once filed, applicants just need to wait for a decision.

Step 8: Acquire the visa and begin working in Australia

Upon receiving their visa, applicants can now proceed to migrate and work in the country.

  • Skilled Nominated Work Visa (Subclass 190)

The subclass 190 visa enjoys the same benefits as the subclass 189 visa, albeit with slight differences regarding sponsorships. In this type of visa, applicants can only be accepted and nominated by state or territory governments in Australia and not by private employers.

The steps to apply are also similar save for step 5, wherein applicants must wait for government authorities to nominate and send them a letter of invitation to apply for the visa.

  • Employer Nomination Scheme Visa (Subclass 186) and Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme Visa (Subclass 187)

Foreign-national workers have the opportunity to work and live as  permanent residents in Australia with the Subclass 186 and Subclass 187 visas. The only difference between these visas is their geographical scope, wherein latter applicants can only be nominated by approved employers for a job within regional Australia.

These visas require applicants to pass certain skills test put forth by said employers and secure their nominations. The steps to apply for Employer Nomination Scheme and Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme visas are:

Step 1: Meet all the prerequisite requirements to work in Australia

Applicants must meet both subclass 186/187 requirements and the specific requirements under the stream they are applying for, namely:

  • The Temporary Residence Transition stream
  • The Agreement stream
  • The Direct Entry stream

Step 2: Have the employer lodge the nomination

Before applicants can submit their application for the subclass 186/187 stream, they must first wait for their employer to lodge a nomination with them with the DHA. Upon approval of the nomination, applicants must submit their application in less than six months.

Step 3: Prepare the necessary documentation and submit the application online

Applicants must have all the documents listed in the Subclass 186/187 Document Checklist prior to submitting their application for proof of the claims made.

Step 4: Wait for the decision and receive your visa upon approval

It generally takes several months for the DHA to process and make a decision on a visa application. However, once approved, applicants can then receive their visas and continue working in the country.

  • Provisional Residency Visa (Subclass 491)

Currently, this visa is given a high level of priority now for Skilled Migration. Approved applicants under this visa will get to stay in Australia for a duration of 5 years, and be able to live, study, and work within a designated regional area of Australia. The visa allows successful applicants travel to and from Australia whenever they desire as long as the visa is still valid.

Similarly, one may also choose to apply for permanent residence once the 3-year mark has been after the visa has been granted.

Step 1: Via SkillSelect, submit an expression of interest (EOI)

After which, you must strive to score sufficient points for a state or territory government to be nominated for the visa and receive an invite for the visa application.

Step 2: Prepare the relevant documents to support the claims you have made in your EOI, as well as other visa requirements

The various documents include identity documents, relationship documents, character documents, competent English documents, partner documents, skills assessment documents, dependants over 18 documents, EOI documents, sponsor documents, and nomination documents.

Be mindful of the documents’ accuracy in information, and ensure they’re completely translated to English and are ready in colour.

Step 3: Prior to receiving the invitation, proceed to apply for the visa

Through SkillSelect, you can make apply for the visa by logging or creating an ImmiAccount. This must be done within 60 days from the date of invitation. After doing so, proceed to attach the necessary documents and make payment for the first visa application charge.

Step 4: Await the visa application results

During this period, the visa application will be processed and be pending approval. If required, additional information like biometrics or health examinations may be requested – if so, proceed to prepare the relevant documents.

A successful visa will mean that you will receive your official visa grant number, the date when the visa begins, and visa conditions – if applicable.

Business or investment-stream permanent residence visas

Professionals possessing the business acumen to bolster the Australian economy can apply for either of the following business visas:

  • Business Innovation and Investment (Provisional) visa (Subclass 188)

Applicants who wish to work and live in Australia with a permanent Business Innovation and Investment visa (Subclass 888) must first secure its provisional version by getting nominated by either state or territory governments or Australian agencies.

Those who qualify for this visa can then establish and manage new or existing business ventures within the country. The following are the steps to apply for the Subclass 188 visa:

Step 1: Meet the requirements

Applicants must pass both the general visa and specific requirements of the stream they are applying for. The 188 visa allows for the following streams:

  • Business Innovation Stream
  • Investor Stream
  • Significant Investor Stream

Step 2: Submit an EOI and get invited via SkillSelect to apply

Applicants must first submit their EOI and let state or territory governments review their business claims before being granted a nomination. After getting nominated, they can then submit their application for the 188 visa through SkillSelect within 60 days.

Nomination requirements and business and employment details will vary for each state, so it is recommended to check their websites ahead of time.

Step 3: Prepare the necessary documentation and submit the application online

Applicants must have all the documents listed in the Subclass 188 Document Checklist prior to submitting their application for proof of the claims made.

Step 4: Wait for the decision and receive your visa upon approval

It generally takes several months for the DHA to process and make a decision on a visa application. However, once approved, applicants can then receive their visa and continue working in the country.

  • Business Talent (Permanent) visa (Subclass 132)

The subclass 132 permanent visa allows certain foreign-national businessmen to live and establish a new business venture or expand an existing one within Australia. This visa type shares many similarities, such as the application steps and process, with the previous one, but has two distinct differences, the first of which is the additional requirements.

Applicants must have minimum personal assets, net business, and annual business turnover, or a minimum in venture capital funding. The second is the streams under which one can apply for, either the Significant Business Stream or Venture capital Entrepreneur Stream.


For those interested in migrating to Australia on their own, it is good to know that there are plenty of ways to secure permanent residency, whether by qualifying for jobs in demand in Australia, marital relationships, or a keen eye for business.

At NTRUST, immigrating to Australia from Singapore is made easier and more hassle-free as the logistics and details, such as your visa application, are taken care of for you. Get started with your Australia PR application today and discuss your eligibility criteria by reaching out to us at +65 6299 0245 for more information.


Jobs In Demand For Skilled Migrants In Australia 2021

Doctors and Nurses Skilled Migration

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed job markets all over the world. As certain industries lag behind and suffer the brunt of the pandemic, other sectors have seen increased demand for new staff to support a shortage of labour.

In light of such changes, the Australian government has decided to welcome new skilled migrants by updating migration policies to support the country’s current workforce.

If you are wondering how to migrate to Australia from Singapore, here are four industries and sectors in Australia that are currently recovering and seeking out skilled migrant workers.

1. Healthcare

The pandemic has seen surges in demand for medical staff all around the globe, and Australia is no exception.

The well-being and safety of healthcare workers are of utmost priority, but reducing working hours has proven to be a tremendously difficult task due to the shortage of workers. It is estimated that by 2025, at least 100,000 new nurses will be needed to support the system and its increased demand.

As expected, healthcare workers have reported increased levels of stress and burnout during the pandemic. The Royal Melbourne Hospital conducted a poll, and over 61% of 10,000 Australian healthcare workers reported experiencing feelings of heightened anxiety. 58% of the respondents also shared feelings of burnout during the pandemic.

Delving deeper, in actuality, there are many other reasons why policymakers are looking for ways to alleviate the strain on the current healthcare system. Poor employee morale will also impact patient care and the quality of service, so more registered nurses and other medical staff are welcomed with open arms to immigrate and support the current system.

Some other positions with heightened demand include disabled and aged carers, as Australia faces the problem of an ageing population and stagnant birth rates.

2. The tech industry

Tech is a booming industry worldwide, and it has grown in importance during the pandemic as companies move online. Aside from telecommunication platforms, eCommerce and even payroll software have proven to be of massive benefit as companies transition to a digital-first environment.

Similarly, Australia expects high future demand for employees in the tech industry, and software developers are especially sought after. Some specific fields include user experience and full-stack development. ICT security specialists and project managers are also in demand.

Even without a shortage of skilled technical staff, Australia seeks to accommodate future growth and demand by attracting more migrants in the present to join the tech industry. For example, Victoria’s Skilled Migration Programme specifically targets individuals who have experience in the STEMM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine) sector.

3. Remote jobs

Australia has seen sharp increments in online shopping. In December 2020, online shopping increased by over 55% compared to December 2019. Additionally, more than 5.6 million Australian households transitioned to e-commerce for groceries and other needs, with a record of 21.3% growth compared to 2019.

With high demands for such services, it is no surprise that e-commerce specialists, such as warehouse operators and inventory managers, are needed to support the growth of the industry. These jobs are not only necessary to support the e-commerce industry but are also extremely popular for their remote working conditions.

As society begins to treat remote working as the norm, such jobs will also experience increased demand and value.

4. with transferable skills

COVID-19 has seen levels of volatility and uncertainty spike in unprecedented conditions. As it becomes increasingly difficult to predict the economy’s direction and ensure its stability, the next best way to secure a job would be to possess transferable skills that allow seamless transitioning between industries.

Transferable skills come in all forms; they can either be soft or hard skills. Otherwise speaking, they can also refer to technical skills which are needed for specific industries. Required baseline skills in a wide variety of industries include people management and supply chain management.

Some jobs that showcase transferable skills include construction workers and teachers. The former includes mathematical literacy and project management, while teachers display experience in multi-tasking and coordination.


With careful curation and organisation of your applications and resume, finding a job in Australia will be less difficult than you expect. Look out for these job openings as you make the switch overseas, and remember that migration is still a possibility during the COVID-19 pandemic!

Let NTRUST improve your chances of a successful job application. With a wealth of experience and success in helping thousands of applicants successfully immigrate to Australia from Singapore, you do not have to worry about complex paperwork or unsuccessful applications. Contact us at +65 6299 0245 and we will assist you in a seamless and efficient application process.